Bondor in Baldock: A brief history of an iconic building

Article Taken from The Annual Guide to Baldock and Ashwell, 3rd edition 2014

By Catherine Rose

In 1924 inspired by Howard Carter’s explorations of Egypt, a giant art deco factory was designed by architects PHS Burditt and built in Baldock to house a film processing company called Kosmos. Today a giant Tesco store stands behind the facade, having been there since 1983, and at 150 metres wide, the listed front is the largest one in the town.

It was built of concrete made from crushed bricks, some of which came from a large house that previously stood on the site called The Elms (probably built about 1817). The house burnt down in 1916. The brick dust is what gives it it’s pinkish tone.

In fact Kosmos became insolvent before ever moving in to the factory and four years later in 1928 it was taken over by the Full Fashion Hosiery Company who were based in Yorkshire. Their trademark was a winged tailor figure and the original facade incorporated this. It was removed during the second world war however when the factory was requisitioned to make parachutes by the Ministry of aircraft Production, along with the equally impressive Spirella building in Letchworth.

The company slogan was “Fashioned or seam free, don’t take a risk, then you’ll certainly see sales will be brisk !”

Charles Woodward joined the company in 1937 and became it’s director, touring America to study the latest production methods. Following his visit, the now nationally known seven sizes of underwear were launched. The manager of the Baldock factory cutting room at that time was Mr Burchell.

The company changed their name to Bondor Ltd in 1946 and then Kayserbonder in the early 1950’s after expansion into Australia when they acquired the Kayser factory in Melbourne. By then they had a worldwide trademark (with the exception of the US) and wee known around the world for quality silk stockings,undergarments including cami knickers, slips and nightwear.

With newly automated production lines, machinists would now work on part of a single garment rather than the whole although there were complaint that this reduced job satisfaction. Nevertheless the company flourished and gained a lot of media exposure. In 1948 BBC presenter Brian Johnston interviewed Jean Lutkin in the Baldock works canteen for his radio programme “Works Wonders” and the company was featured on Pathe news in 1954. Staff would frequently be asked to model the underwear in London.

Equipped with sewing machines that could work 3,000 stitches a minute, staff were mainly women and paid on piecework over  a ten hour day that incorporated a morning and afternoon break along with lunch. Workers would make whole garments , often being given a dozen to finish, and good employees could earn up to three pounds a week.

Baldock was the head office and other offices soon opened locally at Biggleswade and later St Neots and Royston. Baldock staff trained the Biggleswade staff before that factory opened and a bus service ran between the two sites.

This was an era when staff were looked after by large manufacturing companies. An open air swimming pool, tennis courts and gardens were on what is now the Tesco car park for staff to use.Inside there was a ballroom with many sports clubs and social activities organised including dinners at the George and Dragon and parties at the manor house Baldock.

In those days large companies often acted as latter day Robin Hoods and Kayser Bondor was no different, giving generous help to those who worked for the company and its associates in times of need.This would include gifts of coal or financial help for those suffereing from long term illness, and widows with young children who were struggling to make ends meet. Staff morale was described as excellent and long service was rewarded.

The Baldock factory employed many people both from the town and the surrounding area, and today there are many people and local families who will have fond memories of KayserBondor and the impressive building that was its home.


This page was added on 28/11/2014.

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  • I was at the convent boarding school in the 50s and you could see the factory on the lefthand side from the dormitory window. The Catholic Church was on the right. As we were young kids one of the sisters slept in the dormitory in a curtained off space.

    By Tim Forrest (16/07/2022)
  • My name is John Donovan and I was in the nuns priory school opposite the Kayser Bonder factory my brother and 1 went there in 40/50 One time my father was visiting me and I heard his footsteps on the gravel path looked out the window to see him a nun came in and as I was out of bed she said I would not see my father 1 am 81 now
    Take care john donovan email j.donovan1@btinternet .com take care

    By John donovan (15/02/2022)
  • Having lived in Baldock since 1986. I recall a survey by Tesco asking if they were to build a supermarket in the town would I use it.
    Inclined to agree with the comment below (Rachel Gerrard (23/08/2017)) that the store opened would be more 1987ish.

    By Michael Piggott (01/01/2022)
  • Working there for years I can assure you that many of my colleagues know all about ‘The Bondor’ staff recently retired from Tesco actually worked there. Many staff have relatives that worked there. There are huge pictures of the old factory in the staff area with information of it’s history. The memorial garden has been given an actual memorial stone with the names of those workers that were killed in World War 2. During November this year there was a display at the front of the store with information where they were from, where they were deployed, died and are memorialised. As Community champion in the store I have done so much research and shared it everytime I have discovered something new. We do know the history of where we work.

    By Elaine Hewett (14/12/2021)
  • In my opinion, it is a disgrace that Tesco staff are unaware of the architectural significance of the building and when I visited a year or so ago it was obvious that no interpretation board was on the site. As a heritage tourism professional I visit many former factories and locations of significance to the community and this one stands out as having no information whatsoever available to the public or the staff. Will someone take action on this please?

    By David Morgans (22/04/2021)
  • This sounds like an excellent idea. Perhaps you might drop Tesco Baldock a line about this to see if they would like to take this forward? There may be images and information at Herts Archives and Local Studies to support this. They can be contacted via
    Thanks, Site Editors

    By Marion Hill (28/04/2021)
  • In the late 60’s swimming pools were a rarity and very few had the opportunity to learn how to swim. My school at the time was Buntingford Primary school and once a week a coach drove us to Baldock to use the Kayser Bondor Pool. Yes it was an outside pool and yes we had to go in no matter what the weather. I remember it well and I still love the water. I later moved to Baldock for a short time and so happy to shop at Tesco’s the place where I learnt to swim. Greatest memories xxx

    By Sonia Cracknell nee Noble (25/08/2020)
  • Is this building really art deco? Nothing about its appearance seems to say as such.

    By Tim G (04/03/2019)
  • Sue Summerfield, my relatives came from Mansfield Woodhouse, Nottinghamshire to work at Bondor also.

    By Ally Walker (22/09/2018)
  • My dad,Victor George North Martin, worked in the offices and we lived at 69,Weston Way in the early 1950’s.He then became the salesman for the north east and we moved,first to York and then to Malton.My Dad eventually became U.K.Sales Manager.When Courtaulds bought the Company he was made redundant in 1972 and he never fully recovered from the devastation of leaving a Company that he loved so dearly.

    By Phliip Martin (03/04/2018)
  • My Uncle cycled from Sutton in Ashfield to apply for a job at Kayser Bondor. 112 Miles each way. He got a job and several members of the family came to live in the town. Mansfield Road was names for all the workers who followed and worked for the factory.

    By Sue summerfield (03/02/2018)
  • Much of this article is misleading or inaccurate. Anyone seeking information about Kayser Bondor is strongly advised to read Moira Keast’s book on the subject which is readily available in local libraries. Miss Keast’s book was in effect the company’s own history taken from its own records.

    By B. K. Baldock Museum & Local History Society (28/12/2017)
  • Did it become Tesco 1987 ?

    By Rachel Gerrard (23/08/2017)
  • My Grandmother worked at the Baldock site for many years. She had very fond memories of the place. As a teenager in the 1970’s I would be packed off to stay with her through the summer holidays. Even though she was long retired I was allowed access to the outdoor pool where many a happy day was spent.
    I seem to recall the family that ran the lido were called Marshall. How I wish I had looked them up to thank them for all they did for me.

    By Trevor Woods (15/10/2016)